Monday, May 25, 2020

Types Of Governance Models ( Yudhajeet Sinha ) - 1750 Words

TYPES OF GOVERNANCE MODELS (By Yudhajeet Sinha) 2.1. Mechanics of Governance The cardinal principle of mechanics of administration is that a compelling board ought to head each establishment, which is altogether in charge of the accomplishment of the association. The part of the board is to give .The board assumes a critical part of heading the association under the ambit of fitting administration and powerful controls that empowers dangers to be evaluated and oversaw . The board ought to work in the accompanying courses for sustenance of fitting system of the legislature : †¢ constructive test and molding suggestions on system †¢ making an itemized investigation of the execution of administration in gathering craved objectives and†¦show more content†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¢ because it is all around appropriate. It lives up to expectations for associations that are new or develop, benefit or non profit(including government), and grieved or fruitful. †¢ because it is precisely created, it empowers a productive summing of expansive shrewdness fit for satisfactory control without micromanagement. 2.2.2. Reactions The vital part that administration plays is to decide what number of associations capacity. A meaning of influence is the courses of action, structures and authoritative customs that decide how power is worked out, how stakeholders have their say, how choices are taken and how chiefs are considered responsible. A great deal of genuine confirmations exist where works of non-benefits generally proceed notwithstanding flawed influence, and after that additionally the employment accomplishes. Yet there is likewise confirm that administering sheets can upgrade authoritative execution by understanding and undertaking the administration part in a way suitable for their specific association. They convey the general population (or client) trust and give a responsibility structure to administration. The imperativeness of influence develops as the level of open premium and interest in an association develop. Not a solitary flawless model really exists. Few non-benefit associations utilize the conventional model where the

Thursday, May 14, 2020

The Physics Of Atomic Force Microscopy - 1259 Words

Abstract Atomic Force Microscopy was the method used to analyze samples inorder to identify their surface composition and determine their top structure. Compiled data was used to calculate the roughness of the sample. Introduction Atomic Force Microscopy is a powerful tool used to identify the surface structure of a solid by contouring the top layer with a sharp tipped probe and amplifying the hills and troughs via laser reï ¬â€šection and detection. Piezoelec-tric materials are used to ï ¬ nely tune the x and y distance parameters, and a harmonic oscillator is utilized in close contact mode to move the cantilever in the z direction. A Scanning Probe Microscopy program processes the data and calculates the roughness of the sample Background Gustav Schmalz designed the first Optical Profiler in 1929 in Germany. He ran a probe attached to a cantilever across the surface, shined white light to a mirror attached to the probe, and amplified the signal to photographic film. The film was exposed to the reflected light of various wavelengths, causing multiple colors to show up on the film, corresponding to varying heights on the surface. This older design was subject to possible bending or crashing of the probe, causing a much lower resolution of the surface on the film. Refer to Figure 1.Show MoreRelatedPhysics : Atomic Force Microscopy1429 Words   |  6 PagesATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY 1. Introduction to Atomic Force Microscopy An atomic force microscope (AFM) is a type of scanning probe microscope (SPM). An AFM uses a cantilever with a probe to scan over a sample’s surface. The probe is a sharp tip (3 to 6 ï  ­m pyramid; 15 to 40 nm end radius) such as the one shown in Fig. 1. As the tip of the AFM approaches the surface, at close range, attractive forces between the sample surface and the tip of the AFM causes the cantilever to deflect towards the surfaceRead MoreCopper Iron Alloy Of Different Thickness By Electrodeposition Technique1153 Words   |  5 Pagesproject, I fabricated thin films of cobalt iron alloy of different thickness by electrodeposition technique and studied the domain and dynamics of the domain walls by taking measurements from magnetic force microscopy (MFM). I measured the roughness by taking measurements from Atomic force microscopy. I characterized the films with XRD which showed the crystal structure of the film. The SEM images of Cobalt iron film exhibited nano crystallized structure and the variation of granular size as a functionRead MoreStructural And Electrical Properties Of Pva Ag Nanocomposite Films1738 Words   |  7 PagesEl-Kader *, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt ABSTRACT In the present work, PVA-Ag nanocomposite films with thickness 0.18 mm, constant silver content (0.4 wt. %) and with different time of reaction (0.1, 3, 5, 7, 9 h) were prepared by chemical reduction method. Structure, surface topology, photoluminescence and electrical properties of PVA-Ag nanocomposite were studied using x-ray diffraction (XRD), electrometer, atomic force microscope (AFM)Read MoreUsing Graphene And Its Effects On The Environment2317 Words   |  10 Pages CHAPTER-3: Properties2.1. Form and structure Delocalized electrons in favor of the network. Whether it is freely suspended graphene has the inherent ripples or not been resolved Monte Carlo simulations [ and transmission electron microscopy study. The microscopic corrugations is estimated as having a transverse size of about 8-10 nm displacement height from 0.7 to 1 nm approximately. Height stacked SiO2 - subnanometer fluctuations platelet ketone graphene on a silicon substrate byRead MoreStructure, Photoluminescence And Electrical Properties Of Pva Ag2311 Words   |  10 PagesAbd El-Kader *, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt ABSTRACT In the present work, PVA-Ag nanocomposite films with thickness 0.18 mm, constant silver content (0.4 wt. %) and different time of reactions (0.1, 3, 5, 7, 9 h) were prepared by chemical reduction methods. Structure, surface topology, photoluminescence and electrical properties of PVA-Ag nanocomposite were studied using x-ray diffraction (XRD), electrometer, atomic force microscope (AFM)Read MoreEnhancement Of Optical And Electrical Studies On Pva Ag Nanocomposite Films2347 Words   |  10 Pages xxxxxxxxxxx Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt ABSTRACT In the present work, PVA-Ag nanocomposite films with thickness 0.18 mm, constant silver content (0.4 wt. %) and different time of reactions (0.1, 3, 5, 7, 9 h) were prepared by chemical reduction methods. Surface topology, optical and electrical properties of PVA-Ag nanocomposite were studied using absorption spectroscopy, electrometer, atomic force microscope (AFM) and photoluminescenceRead MoreEffects Of Point And Line Defects On The Properties Of Graphene9719 Words   |  39 Pagesare inevitable at the time of production can alter the structural properties of any engineering materials. Developing graphene with specific structural properties depends upon controlling these defects, either by removing or deliberately engineering atomic structure to gain or tailoring specific properties. In the present article, a comprehensive review of defective graphene sheets with respect to its mechanical and thermal properties are presented and examined. Key Words: Graphene; point defects; lineRead MoreThe Theory Of Graphene On Science And Future Electronic Technology1905 Words   |  8 Pagesgraphene held together through weak Van der Waals forces.6 â€Å"Few-layer graphene† (very thin films of graphite, called FLG) was produced as early as 1948 by G. Ruess and F. Vogt7 but single-layer graphene, a single carbon atom thick, was not isolated successfully until 2004 at the University of Manchester by Andre Geim and Kostya Novoselov.1 Their work was published in the highly influential journal Science, and was subsequently awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2010, for â€Å"ground-breaking experiments regardingRead MoreThe Effect Of Carbon Nanotubes On Other Fields Of Materials Science2155 Words   |  9 Pagesof sp2 bonds, like the ones seen in graphite. This bonding structure, stronger than the sp3 bonds found in diamond, provides the molecules with their unique strength. Nanotubes naturally align themselves into ropes hel d together by Van der Waals forces. Under high pressure, nanotubes can merge together, trading some sp2 bonds for sp3 bonds, thus acquiring great possibility for producing strong, unlimited-length wires through high-pressure nanotube linking. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropesRead MoreCase Study on Future Scope of Nanorobotics in Medical Field3531 Words   |  15 PagesTechnology Management, Bhilwara 1 ABSTRACT Nanorobotics, just as with all nanotechnology is still in very early stages of development and as such is largely based within electronic engineering and physics and concerns micromachining, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)and Scanning Probe Microscopy methods. Research into any particular method for creation of nanorobots will largely depend on the group carrying out the research rather than the subject within which they are based. For instance, IBM

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

College Athletes And Fans Support Their Sports Team

Each season college students and fans support their sports team in hopes of a National Championship Title. They purchase season tickets, team clothing, and expensive sports packages from television providers in order to watch their team from afar. This generates a lot of cash for universities and retailers. Ed O Bannon was a college basketball star. In the 1994-95 season, he led his UCLA team to a national championship. He scored 30 points and grabbed 17 rebounds in the championship game, and was named the nation s most outstanding player. These days O Bannon coaches a high school basketball team and sells cars in Las Vegas. But O Bannon s college glory days live on. He can still be watched making the shot that clinched the national title in television rebroadcasts of classic games. His image is sold on trading cards and in video games. O Bannon s college image is still making money for the NCAA through licensed merchandizing. Now O Bannon is suing the NCAA for a part of those profits. To fully understand why this is such a hot topic, one must understand college student athletes as amateurs and why it is important to understand the basis for NCAA in college competition. In order for college students to be granted eligibility as an athlete, they must certify as amateurs and sign a consent form. All student athletes are required to adhere to NCAA amateurism requirements in order to remain eligible for college competition. A student athlete will loseShow MoreRelatedCollege Athletes Should Not Be Paid1173 Words   |  5 PagesPosnanski, a sports journalist and former columnist for Sports Illustrated, weighed in on the controversial issue of college athletes receiving money as a service of their play. â€Å"College Athletes Should Not Be Paid† published 2011 from the Norton Sampler starts off by introducing one of his main arguments that â€Å"College athletics are not about the players† (Posnanski 585) but instead are about the alumni and the colleges themselves that people support. If player on a team left and made their own team wouldRead MoreShould College Athletes Be Paid?1553 Words   |  7 PagesShould College Athletes Be Paid? Collegiate sports have turned into a billion dollar industry and are probably just as popular, if not more popular than professional sports. College athletes put their bodies on the line to play a sport they love, many with hopes and dreams to one day make it to the professional leagues. Athletic facilities are the major money makers for all universities. Colleges bring in billions of dollars in revenue annually, yet athletes do not get paid. Some fans believeRead MoreSports Games And Its Impact On The World Of Sports Essay1492 Words   |  6 Pages As athletes enter the NFL, they reach the height of their career and are introduced to a new arena of sports. By the time one joins the NFL, the athlete is familiar with the game and the other athletes on the field. But now, the athlete must adjust to a few unfamiliar components of football: attention and scrutiny. As an individual makes their way up to the NFL, they will learn the importance of fans. These individuals are a key com ponent to the success of a sports team. Sports fans are also oneRead MoreSports Fan Travel Expert For About.com1027 Words   |  5 Pagesrivalry teams are playing against each other, however college football has something for everyone, but not the same thing for everyone. For example, James Thompson, the sports fan travel expert for, believes that people who travel to the University of Mississippi for a game receive the best experience. When the University of Mississippi tailgates, one sees three different generations, from grandparents, parents, and kids (Strauss). College football dominates the NFL because college teams actuallyRead MoreSocial Media And Its Impact On Society1376 Words   |  6 PagesAbstract The amount of users in social media has increased in numbers over the years. The use of social media has been used throughout different industries including collegiate sports. Over the years it has been seen to increase fan support and interactions, increase the numbers in ticket sales and help with recruiting. Social media has even posed as a danger into hurting a brand throughout recent events. Introduction In today’s society, social media has started to become popular. Over the past fewRead MoreAnnotated Bibliography : Women s Equality1611 Words   |  7 PagesWomen’s Equality in Sports: Annotated Bibliography Women’s equality is an issue that has been around for awhile. While women have been given many rights to increase equality, including the right to vote and go to college, the problem hasn’t completely vanished. One area that still sees this is in sports. Women’s sports do not draw nearly as many fans and are not covered in the media as much as men’s sports, pay differences between male and female athletes are large, and female athletes have to wait longerRead MoreHigher Compensation for Higher Education: Paying College Athletes1749 Words   |  7 Pages2011 College Athletes: Higher Compensation for Higher Education? Division 1 athletes have it all: the glory of representing the school’s colors and honor, the pretty girls, televised games, and most have room and board along with classes paid for. Some think that all this is not enough for these young players; they deserve to be paid for their dedication and hard work. This is a very controversial topic because there is such a fine line between professional athletes and amateur athletes. CollegeRead MoreLarge Salaries of Pro Athletes Negative Effects on Athletes and Sports1574 Words   |  7 PagesLarge Salaries of Pro Athletes Negative Effects On Athletes and Sports Abstract This paper will explain the effects of the luxury contracts of athletes on sports as well as the athlete. The debate is whether the effect is a negative effect or not. This paper will aim to show how the contracts of athletes have changed significantly over time. It will also show how the pro athlete affect the sport of college in different aspects and if that helps or hurt the college athletics or influencesRead MoreCollege Sports Vs. Modern Day Sports1367 Words   |  6 PagesOn game night, college stadiums and gymnasiums fill with fans. Fans wait outside for hours or travel hundreds of miles to cheer their team to victory. Many fans even host house parties and invite their friends to eat snacks and watch the big game together. Sports are a way to bring people together and share a bond over a passion or love for a team; sports give people a hobby they can take pride in. College sports have been around for nearly 200 years and they have only grown increasingly popularRead MoreShou ld College Athletes Be Paid? Essay1603 Words   |  7 PagesThe debate on whether college athletes should be paid to play is a sensitive controversy, with strong support on both sides. College athletics have been around for a long time and always been worth a good amount of money. This billion dollar industry continues to grow in popularity and net worth, while they continue to see more and more money come in. The student-athletes who they are making the money off of see absolutely none of this income. It is time that the student-athletes start to see some of

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Falstaff Essay Example For Students

Falstaff Essay Falstaff: Lion or LoonIn Maurice Morgans ?The Dramatic Character of Falstaff?, he gives us a critical interpretation of the Shakespearian character, Sir John Falstaff, looking at him from every point of view but a Laymans one. He summarizes Falstaff incompletely, including quotes from Henry IV, Part Two and not as much from Henry IV, Part One, which gives more information about ?Old Johns? character (in the first scene with Falstaffs character) from the beginning, but rather stays focused on what leads to his tragic fate. Morgan starts by giving us his thesis statement, which is questioning of whether Falstaff was a coward or if he was a courageous character. This is what I thought the article would be mainly explaining; I was wrong. Morgan seems to go off on tangents, placing Falstaffs character in weird positions by comparing and making relations between other characters in Shakespeares historical plays. He makes an odd point by telling the reader to look at every man as two charac ters, rebuttaling what his goal for the essay is to be. ?Every man we may observe, has two characters; that is, every man may be seen externally, and from without;- or a section may be made of him, and he may be illuminated within? (Morgan 88). There were good points too, like when he defines what courage and cowardice were in Shakespeares time, which I thought was very educational: ?Personal courage may be derived, especially after having acknowledged that he seemed to have deserted those points of honour, which are more peculiarly the accompaniments of rank. But it may be observed that in Feudal ages rank and wealth were not only connected with the point of honour, but with personal strength and natural courage?(Morgan 88). I have to say, Morgan does do a wonderful job of concluding Falstaffs actions with his witty personality and need for attention but as soon as he tries to get back to the subject of ?coward or courageous?, he then changes to another topic. This was very frustrating since Morgan made some excellent points but seemed to have his ideas disorganized. In the end of his essay, I was holding out to read if Morgans evaluation had a good ending decision of Falstaffs ?coward or courageous? character; it didnt. I was very disappointed since I had read all of his points and was waiting for the finale. Morgan concluded his essay with a confusing whimper and not an answering bang. Morgan writes, on which the reader is left to bestow what character he pleases? (Morgan 93). In my opinion, this is slightly rude since Morgan faced us with a question and did not even have the ?courage? to answer it himself. All in all, I believe Morgan has an excellent grasp on Falstaffs character in the later plays, b ut missed Prince Hals great description in Henry IV, Part One making me question his expertise on the subject matter. By the end of reading this interpretation, I felt like I had just gone through an intellectualized mess of words that I was left to organize for review. Someone should tell Maurice Morgan that most of his readers are students and not super-intellectuals. As for Falstaff, I thought he was a very concentrated character whom, like any real person, has many sides to them. This is why, to me, Shakespeare was a great writer; he knew the human spirits goods and evils and how these things are what makes us thrive and gives us dimensions. These dimensions are what Falstaff has plenty of (no pun intended) in his characterization. I would hate to say that Falstaff is a coward. By the end of Henry IV, Part One, he is the man/character that makes the people laugh the most and so they make a personal connection with him. Because of this, it is hard for any audience to label him with a shameful name since he has given them a few instances of happiness. Also, I have questioned if Shakespeare wrote Falstaff to only be a comedic character, releasing him from being a tragic or hero, since most valiant people that he portrays sound a lot healthier than Falstaff. In conclusion, I believe that Morgan has written a good work but not great. For students inf ormation, I would only use this essay for a few references of Falstaffs character but not for a complete reference and not for a critical review (only if you are into self abuse). Morgan, Maurice. ?The Dramatic Character of Falstaff?. .u04424813f9ad001d8bd01a3c87d162ac , .u04424813f9ad001d8bd01a3c87d162ac .postImageUrl , .u04424813f9ad001d8bd01a3c87d162ac .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u04424813f9ad001d8bd01a3c87d162ac , .u04424813f9ad001d8bd01a3c87d162ac:hover , .u04424813f9ad001d8bd01a3c87d162ac:visited , .u04424813f9ad001d8bd01a3c87d162ac:active { border:0!important; } .u04424813f9ad001d8bd01a3c87d162ac .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u04424813f9ad001d8bd01a3c87d162ac { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u04424813f9ad001d8bd01a3c87d162ac:active , .u04424813f9ad001d8bd01a3c87d162ac:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u04424813f9ad001d8bd01a3c87d162ac .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u04424813f9ad001d8bd01a3c87d162ac .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u04424813f9ad001d8bd01a3c87d162ac .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u04424813f9ad001d8bd01a3c87d162ac .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u04424813f9ad001d8bd01a3c87d162ac:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u04424813f9ad001d8bd01a3c87d162ac .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u04424813f9ad001d8bd01a3c87d162ac .u04424813f9ad001d8bd01a3c87d162ac-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u04424813f9ad001d8bd01a3c87d162ac:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Immanuel Kant - Enlightenment EssayEd. Bloom, Harold. Falstaff: A Critical InterpretationChelsea Publishing House, 1992

Friday, April 10, 2020

Louis Vuitton in Japan free essay sample

What has made LV’s business model successful in the Japanese Luxury Market? Japanese luxury market has often placed the greater deal about value on quality along with exclusivity of the products that are being offered as well as it is the critical success factor for the luxury brands within Japan. Fact, which Louis Vuitton has regularly concentrated on enhancing the quality of their product portfolio, has been the important element towards brand’s success in between Japanese luxury market. What made LV’s business model successful within Japanese Luxury has been most important because of the aggressive marketing strategy that they have adopted in the entire nation. Rather with its heritage, â€Å"savoir-faire a la francaise†, constant innovation, quality of its products along with the offered lifetime repair guarantees, LV’s has managed making their Japanese consumers loyal to brand along with succeeded to build their empire within the Japan. What are the opportunities and challenges for LV in Japan? Opportunities Features of evolution of ageing Japanese population might be the option for Louis Vuitton, like wealthier families along with old women with enhanced buying power, however establishing the Internet business, application for the smart phones and also expending the newer range of products for men as well as kids might be next step for enhancing growth within the Japanese Luxury market. We will write a custom essay sample on Louis Vuitton in Japan or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Challenges Changes within the Japanese society along with mindset have been the biggest challenge for Louis Vuitton. New generation does not have similar vision as earlier one along with with gloomy economic context they have lesser inclined towards tolerating the high prices, which was earlier developed desirability. However, entry of the fast fashion brand like ZARA, HM, UNIQLO in Japanese market, providing the quality at the competitive price shook up market share of present luxury organizations within the Japan. Saturated market within the Japan for the fashion luxury, regular lesser editions of products along with feasible departure of the Marc Jacobs might in addition be pointed out like challenges for LV. What are the specifics of the Japanese fashion luxury market? Consumer behavior has been one of biggest specific of Japanese fashion luxury market. Japanese method of consumption has been separate from Western one, as they have been called to be the group related culture in that there had been actual pressure for possessing the luxury brands, its methods of consuming those looks more like the compulsory form of the social expression. And with sufficient marketing strategies successful luxury brand had made Japanese luxury market big market. Apart from that, Japanese customers have often been sensitive towards quality, price, and creativity along with higher fashion these have been the important factors for the successful brands in Japanese market. How did LV enter into the Japanese market originally? What are the other entry strategies adopted later to strengthen its presence? Enter of LV in Japanese market started in mid of the year 1970 however thanks to Vuitton Racamier family who was concentrated majorly on building the Japanese clientele. LV opted for the newer strategy through opening their individual shop in shops in between Japan without help of the Japanese distributor. Louis Vuitton turned out towards being the pioneer in establishing their individual subsidiary as well as exporting products directly from the France to Japan. However, hiring the domestic Chief Executive Officer along with managers for leading Louis Vuitton within Japan permitted brand for doing business much more efficiently trusting they have been much more capable of making market driven decision, as they have been capable of better understanding domestic people. However, through providing architectural stores with the interior design comparable to found in their flagship stores within Paris, Louis Vuitton has been capable of revolutionizing entire buying experience in store matching emotion brought out through products. For strengthening their presence within the Japan Louis Vuitton opted for many others strategies, like hiring Marc Jacob who was created new energy for every ready to wear collection, mixing tradition as well as innovation however in addition through collaborating with the Japanese artists along with launching lesser editions products (exclusivity perceive through consumers) that allows Louis Vuitton to enhance their profit right away. With Japanese economic boom of 1980, Louis Vuitton saw the real option along with decided for entering within this Asian market. However the strategy adopted through company had been totally separate along with uncommon from rest of the world wide actors. Rather, Louis Vuitton had been initially multinational for opening their individual shop in shops through establishing their own subsidiaries, concentrated on only 1 brand of their portfolio. LV did not use usual supply chain schema along with help of the Japanese distributors however exported their products, straightly from France to Japan. Such a strategy provides real benefit to company, underlying higher quality of their production along with distribution systems. LV strategy had original in fact, which that gave the stronger autonomy towards their subsidiaries, and power about market driven decisions. LV trusted Japanese managers along with started on its perfect comprehension as well as knowledge of domestic people, domestic culture along with local consumer behavior. For strengthening their presence in the Japan, LV gave some flexibility towards Japanese market through designating that the place for test newer products and for opening open avantgardist stores, with help of renowned Japanese designers as well as artists. Will LV have any new challenges arise due to the global financial crisis? How does it overcome the new challenges? As described earlier there has been the shift within the Japanese customer preferences along with this has been even much more highlighted because of the global financial crisis. Rather, days of charging the higher price for products having proprietary logo looked to be gone within the Japan. In the time of recession Japanese customers have been becoming much more aware about value of money. However, counterfeiting seemed even in Japanese market in which quality has been one of important factors within act of buying the luxury goods along with this became the bigger challenge for LV. Now that fake bags have been hard to differentiate from genuine ones, Japanese customer would purchase fake LV bags, which they would use for daily life, even if they own authentic, which they would save for important occasions. As there had been sustained slowdown in demand for luxury goods in the year 2008 to 2009 because of the global recession, Japanese luxury market would remain the healthy as well as increasing industry along with strategic decisions may overcome those challenges. On the contrary LV has decided to reduce their prices however they had made 7% price reduction on their range of products. On the contrary LV designated Kiyotaka Fujii the new CEO that initial change in Japanese management team. Such a change in the management allows brand to have the newer vision along with newer concepts such as expanding range of the products for children, sales of smaller products (wallets, sunglasses), spreading the business on web, expanding their strategies as well as opening the newer stores in the mid size cities in which brand has not been well know.

Monday, March 9, 2020

A Critical Discussion of Research Methods and Approaches The WritePass Journal

A Critical Discussion of Research Methods and Approaches Introduction: A Critical Discussion of Research Methods and Approaches Introduction:Research Philosophy:Theoretical Perspective:Research Approach: Inductive and Deductive ResearchResearch Methodology/ Strategy: Case StudyReferencesRelated Introduction: Progressing further from the literature review, a research methodology is proposed and formulated concentrating on the design, implementation and careful analysis of the data to achieve the main research objective which is to analyse what staff at Asda think of the electronic training and induction which takes place within the company.   This would be carefully analysed in further details. Research Philosophy: Saunders et al (2007) defines research philosophy as the manner in which knowledge is being developed and interpreted.   Literature by Saunders et al (2007) indicates that there are three important variables that must be considered when looking at a research philosophy.   These are Ontology, Epistemology and Axiology respectively. Ontology is mainly concerned with the nature of reality; it raises questions on how the world functions and various views that people hold within.   Whereas, Epistemology is the way knowledge is demonstrated and how it can be justified.   Axiology is a branch of philosophy which studies judgements about value and it stresses upon that what role the researcher’s value play in the research.   (Saunders et al 2007). This research is taking place in Asda store in Edinburgh and the philosophical approach it will adopt is Epistemology.   Epistemology as defined by Baker and Foy (2008) is the branch of philosophy which is concerned with the nature of knowledge and mainly concerns at what does and what does not constitute as warranted knowledge. According to Easter-by-Smith et al (2004), adopting a research position is vital in research because of the following reasons.   First, it helps to clarify the research design.   Second, it identifies which design will work and which will not.   Third, it allows the researcher to stay within the research objectives and also indicate some limitations of a particular research approach and last it can help the researcher to introduce his or her personal experiences in the research process.   However, there are two philosophical positions that have emerged from within the rank of Epistemology.   These are Objectivism and Constructivism.   (Saunders et al 2007) Further, Johnson and Clark (2006) argues that the most important issue is not which philosophical space the research occupies but on how well the research is reflected and defence against the alternatives the researcher could have adopted.   More so, the theoretical perspective history presents a graphical illustration of the philosophical positions below: Theoretical Perspective: Objectivism as an epistemological stance holds the view that social entity exists in reality and is independent of people’s perceptions.   However constructivism is opposite to objectivism.   Truth and meaning do not exist in some external world and people construct their own meaning in different ways, even in relation to the same phenomenon.   (Remeyi et al 2005) This research will mainly adopt a constructivist approach because it is about looking at people’s views and beliefs.   However, there is a very little element of objectivism in the research as to look at past figures and study the previous trends of young and older workers beliefs and views.   Therefore, focusing mainly on constructivism thus, making it fairly justifiable for using this constructivist approach.   This correlate with the theoretical perspective of interpretivism.   Saunders et al (2007) defines interpretivism as an epistemological approach which is necessary for the researcher to understand the difference between the humans in the role as a social actor.   This approach is adopted by those who regard the business world as too complex to permit the discovery of definite laws.   According to Saunders et al (2007), interpretivism refers to way people make sense of the world around them, which bears different perceptions of the way people judge, think a nd feel about organisational operations.   However, proponents of interpretivism are criticised for undermining the general ability of research findings.   Reasons for adopting this philosophical approach is that the staff at Asda is going to base and construct their own understanding and knowledge on electronic training and induction which is offered to them therefore they will have their opinions and feelings about it and whether they like it or not. Remeyi et al (2005:104) nicely summarised the underpinning features of objectivism and constructivism in the table below:- Objectivism Constructivism Basic beliefs: World is externally and objectiveObserver is independent World is socially constructed and subjectiveObserver is part of what is been observed Focus on meaning Researchers should: Focus on factsLook for causality and fundamental lawsReduce phenomena to simplest elements Formulate and test hypothesis Try to understand what is happening Look at totality of each situation Preferred methods: Operationalise concepts so they can be measuredTake large samples Use multiple methods to establish different views of phenomena Small samples investigated in depth or over time Source:Remeyi et al (2005:104) Research Approach: Inductive and Deductive Research There are two major approaches to a research development namely induction and deduction.   Deductive approach is similarly to that of the scientific research.   It involves the development of a theory which is subjected to a rigorous test.   (Collis and Hussey2003) Deductive approach in a research works from a more general to more specific and conclusions can be drawn from an available theory. (Saunders et al 2007). For instance: Herzberg’s Two Factor theory can be used to identify job satisfaction within a workplace. Inductive approach on the other hand works the other way round moving from much specific to broader generalisation and conclusions are based on the facts identified in the research findings.  Ã‚   The purpose of this is to get a feel of what is going on so as to understand something in a much better way.   (Saunders et al 2007) Inductive approach will be suitable for this research because the research objectives are context specific, gathering general ideas and views of people and the research will be carried out to get a better understanding of the workplace systems and finally conclusions will be arrived from the research findings. Research Methodology/ Strategy: Case Study According to Remeyi et al (2005) research strategy provides the overall direction of the research and has identified several research strategies namely action research, case studies, forecasting, survey, ethnography, grounded theory and archival research. Robson (2002) defines case study as a strategy for doing research which involves an investigation of a particular existing fact within its real life context using multiple sources of evidence.   Morris and Wood (1991) states that the case study strategy is of a greater interest if the researcher wishes to gain a rich understanding of the context of the research and the process being enacted.   Case study strategy also generates answers to the questions, for this reason the case study strategy is often used in explanatory and exploratory research. For the purpose of this research, the researcher will focus on case study strategy.   The use of this strategy will comfortably accommodate better understanding and provide rich picture of the current situation and training systems in place within Asda. Purpose of the Research: Descriptive, Exploratory or Explanatory: The classification of the research purpose most often used in the research methods is among one of the following: exploratory, descriptive or explanatory.   However, the research project may have more than one purpose.   (Saunders et al 2007) Robson (2002) points out, that the purpose of enquiry within the research can also change over time. Descriptive Study: Robson (2002) states that, the aim of descriptive research is to portray an accurate and exact profile of people, events or situations. Exploratory Study: An exploratory study is very valuable way of finding out what is happening or to seek new insights, to ask questions and to assess phenomena in a new light.   It is a very useful if the research is about clarifying and understanding of any problems and there is also a willingness to change direction in exploratory study.   (Robson 2002) Explanatory Study: This involves a research which focuses on studying a situation or a problem in order to explain the relationships between variables.   (Saunders et al 2007) This research is going to use exploratory study because it involves getting a general understanding of electronic training given to staff in Asda and exploring any problems within the workplace faced by the employees finally willing to make any adjustments according to the needs and requirements of the employees. Qualitative and Quantitative Data: Saunders et al (2007) describe qualitative data as non-numerical data and which has not been quantified.   Carter and Litter (2007) hold the view that qualitative research enables the researcher to rely on words rather than using numerical data when carrying out the investigation.   The researcher can pose open the questions about the nature of things as they happen in real life rather than putting out to test already established hypothesis. However, on the other hand quantitative data as described by Saunders et al (2007) as numerical data that have been quantified and it is the data that can be measured. Carter and Little (2007) describe quantitative data as data which is based on facts and figures. This research is mainly focused on Qualitative method because it involves describing things for instance getting feelings of staff over induction and training method used in Asda which is the main objective of this research.   The qualitative data will be collected from interviews to get a general feeling of things.   However, there is also little Quantitative analysis involved within the research because the researcher will gather some numerical data by giving out the questionnaires in order to access the effectiveness of electronic induction and training.   Previous figures can also be collected from management for accessing the effectiveness of e-training but the main focus still relies on the qualitative analysis.   Quantitative data can be represented by using pie charts, bar charts or reports.   Easterby-Smith et al (2004) states that the combination of both methods of research enhances and maximises the quality of the research. Data Collection Methods: This research is based on a realistic philosophical stance based on inductive approach, the research strategy being a case study, the purpose of the research being exploratory using both qualitative and quantitative analysis but mainly emphasising on qualitative analysis.   Data collection methods are simply how the information is gathered.   There is a wide range of data collection methods available namely:   surveys, sampling, questionnaire, observation, interview, focus groups.   (Easterby-Smith et al 2004) However for the purpose of this research the researcher is going to use three methods to collect data (questionnaire, semi-structured interview and focus group discussions) for the purpose of triangulation. Questionnaires: A questionnaire is a set of carefully prepared questions designed with the aim of collecting reliable data from selected participants.   (Remeyi et al 2005) Oppenheim (1992) defines a questionnaire as a tool for collecting and recording information about a particular issue of interest.   It is made up of a list of questions and it should always have a definite purpose which is related to the objectives of the research.   Questionnaires are commonly used to gather straightforward information relating to people’s behaviour or to look at basic attitudes and opinions of people relating to a particular issue.   The questionnaire can be designed using both open and closed ended questions to get both qualitative and quantitative data. For the purpose of this research, the researcher will distribute the questionnaires to the permanent staff specially focusing on staff that has been to both electronically and classroom based training sessions.   Reason for using a questionnaire is that it will enable the researcher to get a clear picture about the effectiveness of e-training.   A sample size of about 30 staff will then be chosen.   This will include 25 shop floor workers, 2 team leaders, 2 line managers and 1 personal training buddy.   The questionnaire will be in the form of both open and closed ended questions to get a mixture of quantitative and qualitative data.   The questionnaire is focused to those employees and managers who can share and express their views in interviews and focus group discussions. Further, Cohen et al (2000) states that advantages of a questionnaire is that the feedback is anonymous which encourages openness and honesty and it gives the opportunity to each employee to participate.   The use of questionnaires gives the following advantages: it is cost and time efficient in collecting and analysing data.   However, questionnaires also possess some sort of difficulty for example open ended questions may require the respondent to give detailed answers which may be a challenge to some respondents whereas, closed ended questions may limit the in-depth enquiry of relevant information.   (Easterby-Smith et al 2004)  Ã‚  Ã‚   The researcher will carry out a pilot test using five questionnaires to check that the questions are easily understood and that there are no particular problems relating to the length, sensitivity and sequence of questions. One to one Interviews: According to Easterby-Smith et al (2004) one to one interviews can take various forms: structured, semi-structured and unstructured.   This requires a face-to-face conversation between the interviewee and the interviewer and the sequence of questions are open ended. This research will adopt a semi-structured interview.   Remeyi et al (2005) states that semi-structured interview provides an opportunity to probe complex issues in a relaxed atmosphere. The reason for carrying out the research in a semi-structured interview technique is because it provides quick and rich evidence because the respondent can provide detailed insights of facts.   Participants for the semi-structured interview will be selected on the basis that they have gone through both electronic and classroom trainings programmes.   The sample for the interview would be five members mainly: 1 personnel manager, 1 departmental manager, 1 line manager and 2 shop floor workers.   The interview questions will be drawn out from the literature review however; the researcher may add any relevant questions or drop any issues which may seem inappropriate while conducting the interview. Focus Group Discussions: A focus group discussion is a group of people who have been brought together to discuss a specific topic in depth.   According to Saunders et al (2007) focus group discussions involves the use of comprehensively group interaction whereby participants are chosen because they have something to contribute on the topic.   A focus group can precede both quantitative and qualitative data. The researcher will use focus group discussions as third method to gather data.   Reasons for doing a focus group discussion is because one session of a group discussion produces a large amount of information in a relatively short period of time.   The research will involve five participants in the focus group discussion; 1 line manager, 1 team leader, 1 training buddy and 2 shop floor workers and the sessions will last for 25 minutes. Triangulation: According to Wolf (2010:145) ‘’triangulation refers to the combination of different research modes or looking at the same topic from different angles.’’ As stated above, three methods have been adopted for this research.   They will better explore the outcome of the e-training process thus enhancing validity.   The reason is to provide broader breadth and depth of the research objectives and also offer greater clarity about the gaps in philosophical commitment during data collection and analysis levels.   (Cox and Hassard 2005) Validity and Reliability of Research Design: Validity and reliability are very important criteria in evaluating a research.   According to Joppe (2000), validity determines whether the research truly measures that which was intended to measure or how truthful the research results are.   Remeyi et al (2005) refers to validity as representing a good fit between theory and reality, in the same sense that when a description of a process is evaluated; best fit between theory and reality can be traced.   The primary reason for considering this is to indicate how the research will be accepted as a piece of academic writing. Since the research will include little bit of quantitative data, statistical validity will be very paramount to ensure consistency and integrity.   Also validity of qualitative data will be prompted whether the researcher has gained full access to knowledge and information about the case study.   (Remeyi et al 2005) Reliability is that similar observations should be made by researchers on different occasions and the concern is that how replicable the study is.   (Remeyi et al 2005)  Ã‚   This is achieved by keeping the data which is been collected safely and to enable others to investigate if any doubts arise in the research results.   This provides transparency and trust in the philosophy, approach and methods used in collecting and analysing data since they are open for scrutiny.   (Remeyi et al 2005). Research Ethics: The researcher will bear in mind the ethical issues; these will be in accordance with research ethics framework presented by the University of Bolton Institutional Repository and also the Economic and Social Research Council: to ensure the design and the research itself will respect honesty and quality standard.   Its been guaranteed that the intended used methods shall be clearly understood by the participants and privacy will be respected in terms of when gathering data and anonymity of respondent.   Finally, the author will observe the widely cited suggestions given by Remeyi et al (2005) relative to the theft of ideas, choice of sampling, obtaining assistance from others, misrepresentation of work done and lastly to avoid illegal and unlawful conducts with the entities of the organisation being studied. Evaluation of Overall Research Design: The research philosophy, approach, strategy and methods adopted for the research are judged by the researcher as the most suitably fit for the research objectives.   However, the researcher is aware of the lapses in the research design and these might cause hindrance in convincing conclusions.   The researcher has envisaged the following possible limitations and has outlined backup plans. Firstly, the issues could rise in the inclusion and exclusion of sampling criteria may rise constraints in the research design.   For example: age discrimination and ethnicity might be a problem and overall logistic costs and general feasibility of the research design can hinder the collection of sufficient data.   Also selected participants maybe unavailable due to being absence, some participants being on sick leave, workers taking pre-booked holidays and most importantly the busy schedule of management may cause disruptions in the research.   In addition, the current management within the department might be altered through transfers hence; this might slow down the research process completely. Secondly, the sample of 30 participants may not provide a broader picture of the electronically based training and induction in Asda. Thirdly, errors and non-responsive attitude of the participants might cause problems in the sample representation. Furthermore, by using a case study strategy it makes it difficult to generalise the outcomes of the research since it may not present a wider view of the store or Asda organisation.   This can raise questions about the validity and reliability of the research.   Also, the time available to carry out the research is limited.   This limits the collection of vital information through semi-structured interviews and focus groups discussions which might cause some loop holes in the research process. Accurate and appropriate data collection analysis tools maybe difficult to find sometimes.   Again, since the purpose of the research objective seems to be limited and focuses on a more tangible issue such as technology; this might limit participants interest in the research thus can cause setbacks in the research process.   Equally important is that access to vital information about the personnel department might cause constraints in the research itself; as stated by Wolf (2010) it is common for researcher to encounter accessibility difficulties during the data collection stages of their research. Finally, the research project is the first independent project carried out by the researcher of such magnitude, although the author has written essays for up to three thousand words but this may cause inaccuracies in the overall research design. The use of questionnaires will target wide sample size, this will ensure appropriate response.   Interviews and focus group discussions will enable the researcher to obtain valuable information for limited time since management will be involved. As data analysis and interpretation of data is concerned, the researcher will apply simple co-efficient method by comparing between samples, the higher co-efficient reflecting higher score and vice versa.   (Cavusgil and Das 1997) With regards to internal and external validity of the research, the author will ensure causality between the research objectives, literature review and the research design and also ensure that the research design matches with other research patterns. In addition, triangulation has been adopted to provide richness in the data collected.   Similarly, the author will follow the recommendations provided by Gilbbert and Ruigrok (2010) to ensure external validity; generality in external setting does not mean that case study should give up generalisability but the key is to distinguish between statistical and analytical generality. With respect to ethical concerns, the research will guarantee transparency through careful documentation and organisation of the research process with relevant materials to be kept secured to facilitate retrieval for any further investigation. Furthermore, the author will ensure for the sample criteria all cultures are respected.   Inclusion criteria will follow the provisions of Equality and Discrimination Act 2010.   The author will use random sample in order to avoid any representation errors. Also with regards to accessibility, the author will keep closed contact with the management.   More so, the author works within the company as a seasonal staff during the holidays and has been working there for three years so this makes it easy for the management and employees with regards to communication flow so the communication gap has been eliminated.   The issue of cost especially travelling and other logistics from Bolton to Edinburgh will be handled since Edinburgh is the author’s main UK residency place. In short, the research design coupled with the research objectives and the literature review are fundamental in critically evaluating the process of electronic training and induction in Asda Edinburgh. References Baker, M.A., Foy, A. (2008) Business and Management Research, 2nd Ed, Argyll: Westburn Publishers Carter, S.M., Little, M. (2007) Justifying Knowledge, Justifying Method, Taking Action: Epistemologies, Methodologies and Methods in Qualitative Research, Journal of Qualitative Health Research, vol.17, no.10, pp.1316-132 Cavusgil, S.M., Das, A. (1997) Methodology Issues in Cross-cultural Sourcing Research – a Primer, Marketing Intelligence and Planning Journal, vol.15, no.5, pp.213-220 Cohen, L., Manion, L., Morrison, K. (2000) Research Methods in Education, 5th Ed, London: Rouledge Falmer Collis, J., Hussey, R. (2003) Business Research: A Practical Guide for Undergraduate and Postgraduate Students, 2nd Ed, Basingstoke: Macmillan Cox, J.W., Hassard, J. (2005) Triangulation in Organisational Research: A Representation, Organisation Science Journal, vol.12, pp.109-133 Easterby-Smith, M., Thorpe, R., Lowe, A. (2004) Management Research: An Introduction, 2nd Ed, London: Sage Publications Gibbert, M., Ruigrok, W. (2010) The ‘What’ and ‘How’ of Case Study Rigor: Three Strategies Based on Published Work, Journal of Organisational Research Methods, vol.13, no.4, pp.710-737 Johnson, P., Clark, M. (2006) Business and Management Research Methodologies, Sage Publications Joppe, M. (2000) The Research Process, The Quantitative Report Journal, vol.8, no.4, pp.597-607.   Available from:  Ã‚   [Accessed on 25th April 2011] Morris, T., Wood, S. (1991) ‘’Testing the survey method: continuity and change in British industrial relations’, Work Employment and Society, vol.5, no.2, pp.259-82 Neuman, W.L. (2000) Social Research Methods, 2nd Ed, London: Allyn and Bacon Oppenheim, A.N. (1992) Questionnaire Design, Interviewing and Attitude Measurement, 2nd Ed, London: St. Martins Press Remeyi, D.W., Money, A., Swartz, E. (2005) Doing Research in Business and Management: An Introduction to Process and Method, London: Sage Publications Robson, C. (2002) Real World Research, 2nd Ed, Oxford: Blackwell Saunders, M., Lewis, P., Thornhill, A. (2007) Research Methods for Business Students, 4th Ed, Harlow: Pearson Education Wolf, F. (2010) Enlightened Eclecticism or Hazardous Hotchpotch? Mixed Methods and Triangulation, Journal of Mixed Methods Research, vol.4, no.2, pp.144-16

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Bibliography sketch of the author Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Bibliography sketch of the author - Essay Example Because of his articulate literature, he has won several awards, including the Margaret Edwards Award, National Humanities Medal, and Newbery Medal (Stevens 86). Richard did not begin his career as a novelist. He was a high school teacher who read passionately and dreamt of becoming a novelist one day. He started his writing profession when he was transferred to a junior high school as an English teacher. Occasioned by this transfer, he decided to cut short his teaching career and embark on writing novels. He used his observations at the junior school to write his first novel. He learned a lot from his students. Richard Wayne Peck loved young adult very much. He wanted to inspire their mind change their thinking. That is why Richard chose to write about Young-adult fiction, mystery, and horror (Bostrom 204). Richard is a well-educated writer. He studied his first degree at DePauw University in 1956. He advanced with a bachelors gradation in English and spent much of his time as a member of Delta Chi fraternity at University of Exeter. Later in 1959, he completed his masters degree in English at Southern Illinois University. He also taught junior school and high school English while studying his masters at the university. He continued teaching English until 1971 when he authored his first novel entitled â€Å"Dont Look and It Wont Hurt.† The novel was published in 1972 by Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. The novel illustrates the life of a teenage girl who was struggling to understand her place within the world and her family. Richard is a versatile novelist. He has steadily grown to join the list America’s most respected writers. He is cherished by young adults and middle graders worldwide because of his mystical coming of age novels. He writes novels that are perfectly suited for children and young adult literature. In fact, every association and publications dealing with children literature have recommended Richard Peck’s books. His